After emergence and successful elongation of the first true leaves, photosynthesis becomes the energy source for future growth. Consistent with its tropical origin, corn photosynthesis is negatively affected by low temperatures. Leaves grown at 14°C (57°F) have 30% of the photosynthesis rate as those grown at 25°C (77°F). (Plant Physiol. (1995) 108: 761-767). Much of this reduction is recovered within a few hours if the leaves are returned to the higher mid-70 temperatures.
Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll causes an electron to be moved within the chloroplast but if it does not ultimately get utilized in synthesis of carbohydrates, it can damage a critical protein needed in photosynthesis. Corn chloroplasts react by producing a yellow pigment (zeaxanthin) protein that is active in the quick recovery after the heat returns. Chlorophyll molecules are relatively unstable especially in high light intensity and low temperatures, further contributing to reduced photosynthesis at the lower temperatures.
Another protection system in corn, and other plants, that develops in the cell outside of the chloroplast is the pigment anthocyanin. This red pigment absorbs the blue light spectrum of sunlight and thus reduces photosynthesis. Anthocyanin forms after the sugars reach a high concentration. This often happens in seedlings when sugars are unable to be translocated to the roots, again because lack of the heat energy needed move the sugars. Hybrids vary in the tendency to produced anthocyanin, occasionally causing alarm to the grower but return to warmer temperatures results in disappearance of the red color and normal photosynthetic rates in the seedling leaves.
About Corn Journal
The purpose of this blog is to share perspectives of the biology of corn, its seed and diseases in a mix of technical and not so technical terms with all who are interested in this major crop. With more technical references to any of the topics easily available on the web with a search of key words, the blog will rarely cite references but will attempt to be accurate. Comments are welcome but will be screened before publishing. Comments and questions directed to the author by emails are encouraged.